Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Technology Research

JACSTR is an open access journal, aims at rapid publication of concise research papers of a broad interest in computer science and information technology fields.

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Overview of the therapy of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction

Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome representing the end-stage of a number of different cardiac diseases. It can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricle to fill with or eject blood. There are two mechanisms by which reduced cardiac output and HF occur: systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. An overview of the management of HF due to systolic dysfunction, including the treatment of associated conditions, will be presented here. Drugs that should be avoided or used with caution in patients with HF, the management of refractory HF, and therapy of HF due to diastolic dysfunction are discussed separately.

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Etiology and classification of stroke

The two broad categories of stroke, hemorrhage and ischemia, are diametrically opposite conditions: hemorrhage is characterized by too much blood within the closed cranial cavity, while ischemia is characterized by too little blood to supply an adequate amount of oxygen and nutrients to a part of the brain. Each of these categories can be divided into subtypes that have somewhat different causes, clinical pictures, clinical courses, outcomes, and treatment strategies.

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Overview of the management of chronic kidney disease in adults

All patients with renal disease (whether acute or chronic) should undergo an assessment of renal function by estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This measurement is used clinically to evaluate the degree of renal impairment, to follow the course of the disease, and to assess the response to therapy. An attempt must also be made to obtain a specific diagnosis. The first step in this process is a careful urinalysis. An overview of the general issues involved in the management of the patient with chronic kidney disease, including modalities to slow the rate of progression, will be presented here. The specific therapy of patients with particular renal diseases is discussed separately in the appropriate topic reviews.

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Overview of the management of epilepsy in adults

The management of patients with epilepsy is focused on three main goals: controlling seizures, avoiding treatment side effects, and maintaining or restoring quality of life. Physicians should assist in empowering patients with epilepsy to lead lifestyles consistent with their capabilities. The optimal treatment plan is derived following an accurate diagnosis of the patient's seizure type(s), an objective measure of the intensity and frequency of the seizures, awareness of medication side effects, and an evaluation of disease-related psychosocial problems.

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Overview of colonoscopy in adults

Colonoscopy is used both diagnostically and therapeutically and permits examination and treatment of the rectum, colon, and a portion of the terminal ileum. Performance of a high-quality colonoscopy examination requires understanding and mastery of cognitive and technical skills. A joint American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy/American College of Gastroenterology Taskforce on Quality in Endoscopy advocated the following quality indicators before, during, and after colonoscopy.

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Clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease

First described by James Parkinson in his classic 1817 monograph, "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy", Parkinson disease (PD; also known as paralysis agitans) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects between 100 and 200 per 100,000 people over 40, and over 1 million people in North America alone. Parkinson disease is uncommon in people younger than 40, and the incidence of the disease increases rapidly over 60 years, with a mean age at diagnosis of 70.5 years. While PD has traditionally been considered a motor system disorder, it is now recognized to be a complex condition with diverse clinical features that include neuropsychiatric and other nonmotor manifestations in addition to its motor symptomatology. An accurate diagnosis of PD rests on the clinician's ability to recognize its characteristic signs and associated symptoms, especially in the early stages.

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Criteria for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as a clinical (or pathologic) event caused by myocardial ischemia in which there is evidence of myocardial injury or necrosis. Criteria are met when there is a rise and/or fall of cardiac biomarkers, along with supportive evidence in the form of typical symptoms, suggestive electrocardiographic changes, or imaging evidence of new loss of viable myocardium or new regional wall motion abnormality. The criteria used to define MI differ somewhat depending upon the particular clinical circumstance of the patient: those suspected of acute MI based upon their presentation; those undergoing either coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous intervention; or those who have sustained sudden, unexpected cardiac arrest with or without death.

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Schizophrenia: Clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder involving chronic or recurrent psychosis. It is commonly associated with impairments in social and occupational functioning. Characteristics of schizophrenia typically include positive symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions, disorganized speech, negative symptoms such as a flat affect or poverty of speech, and impairments in cognition including attention, memory and executive functions. A diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on the presence of such symptoms, coupled with social or occupational dysfunction for at least six months, in the absence of another diagnosis that would better account for the presentation.

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Generalized anxiety disorder: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, course, assessment, and diagnosis

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive and persistent worrying that is hard to control, causes significant distress or impairment, and occurs on more days than not for at least six months. Other features include psychological symptoms of anxiety, such as apprehensiveness and irritability, and physical (or somatic) symptoms of anxiety, such as increased fatigue and muscular tension. Effective treatments for generalized anxiety disorder include psychological interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, and medications including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.disorder are discussed separately.

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Cerebrovascular complications of sickle cell disease

Vasoocclusive phenomena and hemolysis are the clinical hallmarks of sickle cell disease (SCD). Vasoocclusion results in recurrent painful episodes (previously called sickle cell crisis) and a variety of serious organ system complications that can lead to life-long disabilities and even death.

Hemoglobin S results from the substitution of a valine for glutamic acid as the sixth amino acid of the beta globin chain, which produces a hemoglobin tetramer (alpha2/beta S2) that is poorly soluble when deoxygenated . The polymerization of deoxy hemoglobin (Hb) S is essential to vasoocclusive phenomena. The polymer assumes the form of an elongated rope-like fiber that usually aligns with other fibers, resulting in distortion into the classic crescent or sickle shape and a marked decrease in red cell deformability.

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Management of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

During fetal life, the ductus arteriosus (DA) diverts blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta, thereby bypassing the lungs . After birth, the DA undergoes active constriction and eventual obliteration. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs when the DA fails to completely close after delivery.Preterm infants with moderate to large left-to-right shunts have a greater mortality rate than those without a PDA. They also have an increased risk of pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and a decrease in perfusion and oxygen delivery to end-organs. As a result, management of preterm infants with clinically significant PDAs has been focused on PDA closure and prevention.

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Botulinum toxin for cosmetic indications: Treatment of specific sites

Botulinum toxin is an injectable neuromodulator derived from neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, the bacterium responsible for botulism. As a result of the ability of the toxin to inhibit neurotransmission between peripheral nerves and muscle tissue, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for aesthetic and medical concerns that are exacerbated by muscle contraction. Although the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval for the cosmetic use of onabotulinumtoxinA , incobotulinumtoxinA , and abobotulinumtoxinA remains limited to the treatment of glabellar lines, injectable botulinum toxin is widely used for other cosmetic indications.

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Management of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

Ablative laser resurfacing is used to target the cutaneous signs of photodamage that progressively increase with age and occur most prominently in individuals with fair skin. Through the ablation of the epidermis and portions of the superficial dermis as well as the induction of collagen remodeling in the deeper dermis, ablative laser resurfacing can reduce rhytides (wrinkles), dyschromia, vascular changes, and skin laxity.

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Design for Sciencitif Renaissance  is established by a number of scholars in various fields; their primary aim is to disseminate knowledge among human beings all over the world. DSR endeavours to publish original research papers, peer reviewed articles, technical reports and short communications in all fields of sciences.

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DSR's vision is to promote a scientifically fair globalized world.

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The main missions of DSR are:

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DSR Board of Governors

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  • Deputy Chairman for Journals and Strategic Affairs.
  • Deputy Chairman for Conferences and Training.


  • Prof. Fouad H.M.H. AL-Bayaty
  • Prof. Hussain A. Bekhet
  • Prof. Imad Al-Sultan
  • Prof. Khalid Alkhateeb
  • A.Prof Imad Fakhri Al Shaikhli


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5 Acknowledgements: Funding source, etc.

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